The Telecom Digest for August 05, 2010
Volume 29 : Issue 211 : "text" Format
Messages in this Issue:
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Date: Tue, 3 Aug 2010 20:11:34 EDT
Subject: New area code for eastern Oklahoma
>From newsok.com (The Oklahoman, Oklahoma City, Okla.), August 3, 2010
New area code coming soon to eastern Oklahoma Residents of Oklahoma's
918 telephone area code may begin using 10-digit dialing for local
calls as soon as Saturday, although they won't be required to do so
area code test period begins Saturday
A seven-month "permissive calling period" begins Saturday for Oklahoma
residents in the 918 area code. That area code, which serves Tulsa
much of eastern Oklahoma, is running out of new telephone numbers, so
numbers with a new 539 area code will become available next spring.
The overlay plan approved by state regulators in January means eastern
Oklahoma residents will have to dial 10 digits - the area code and
phone number - on all local calls. That change won't be required until
March 5, but the permissive calling period allows residents time to
acclimate. Numbers with the new 539 area code will be available
April 1, but telephone customers still will be able to request 918 numbers
as long as they are available, according to the _Oklahoma Corporation
The remaining 918 numbers are expected to run out by the last quarter
of 2012. The new area code will be Oklahoma's fourth, joining 918, 405
and 580. An area code can accommodate about 7.8 million telephone
numbers, according to the North American Number Plan, which serves 19
North American countries.
_JAY F. MARKS_
Date: Tue, 03 Aug 2010 20:09:14 -0700
From: The Kaminsky Family <email@example.com>
Subject: Re: Do rate centers cross state lines?
danny burstein wrote:
> In <firstname.lastname@example.org> John David Galt <email@example.com> writes:
> The other is the community of Marble Hill in Northern Manhattan.
> The physical phone cables run through a Bronx central office,
> and during the breakup of the (212) area code, these folk,
> despite being in Manhattan, were assigned into the new (718) one.
A little background on Marble Hill. The border between the island
of Manhattan and the mainland (the Bronx) was (until the early 1900's)
Spuyten Duyvil Creek (don't trust me on the spelling; it means "in
spite of the devil" in Dutch ). In 1909 (as I remember it, but don't
bet on the date), the Harlem River Ship Canal was built to connect
the Harlem River to the Hudson River, enabling navigation around
what was left of Manhattan Island. Marble Hill is the portion of
the old island north of the canal. It is now on the mainland,
and every couple of years when I was growing up there the borough
president of the Bronx would come to Marble Hill and try to claim
it for the Bronx - to no avail. The neighborhood is served by
the Bronx Post Office, [ob telecom] Bronx central offices (I am
guessing more than one, but do not know for certain), and Bronx schools,
but votes in New York County with Manhattan Island.
No surprise that they went to 718 with the Bronx.
 In the time before the English took over New Amsterdam (memory
says that was 1664 - but it has been many years since grade school),
a Dutch colonist had to cross the creek on an urgent errand (I've
forgotten what, but it was a matter of life and death). Now the
tides go up the Hudson well past this point, and when the creek
was high, the water at the junction of the creek and the river
was pretty wild. So the colonist said, "in spite of the devil"
and swam across. I cannot remember whether he survived, but
I suspect the creek would have been named after him if he perished.
I have never understood why he didn't try to cross further upstream,
where it had to be smoother.
Date: 4 Aug 2010 16:21:28 -0000
From: John Levine <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Subject: Re: Do rate centers cross state lines?
>First is Fisher's Island, in Long Island Sound. Legally
>it's part of Suffolk County, an eastern NYC suburb.
Right, it's always been connected to New London, which is much closer
than Long Island where the rest of Suffolk County is. I recall some
articles a while ago about the complicated stuff they had to do to
route 911 calls through AT&T and two ILECs to get them back to the
center in Long Island.
>The other is the community of Marble Hill in Northern Manhattan.
>The physical phone cables run through a Bronx central office,
>and during the breakup of the (212) area code, these folk,
>despite being in Manhattan, were assigned into the new (718) one.
Marble Hill is physically part of the Bronx. When they blasted out
the Harlem River, which separates the Bronx from Manhattan, to make it
more navigable in the 1800s, they rerouted it from north of Marble
Hill to south. The residents feel very strongly that they are
Manhattanites and have objected to attempts to give them area codes or
zip codes that suggest otherwise.
Date: Wed, 4 Aug 2010 05:53:30 -0700 (PDT)
From: Harold Hallikainen <email@example.com>
Subject: Re: Model 15 RO Teletype available (OT)
While in high school, I ran several miles of single conductor wire
through trees to a friend's house. We ran a couple [of] model 15 Teletypes
over that line to ground. I quickly discovered that T=L/R on that
circuit. I used a low voltage power supply and adjusted it for 60mA
loop current. We got garbage when we typed. We then used the power
supplies that came with the Teletypes, which were something like
150VDC with a large series resistor limiting the current to 60mA. They
worked fine. The time constant had kept the selector magnet current
from increasing to a high enough current during a mark bit time for
the bit to be detected properly. With the higher voltage and the
series R, it worked great.
We added some current detect relays in series at each end with
capacitors across them. When the current was off for a long time, the
relay would drop out and turn off the printer motor. We had a power
supply at each end. We could turn on the supply at one end or the
other, start the motors at both ends, then leave a message. We'd then
turn off the supply. The printers would "run open" for a second, then
These were running 60WPM and were real tolerant of our line. Of
course, by telegraph standards, this was a pretty short line.
I read once that when experimenting with undersea telegraph, they
originally put a big roll of wire in a vat of saltwater and tried to
send a message through it. It appeared that undersea telegraph was not
going to work because it was so slow with even this relatively short
wire. It was later determined that the big coil of wire was a pretty
Also, finally, on Morse... In 1969, I went to the FCC office in San
Francisco to take the exam for my radiotelephone license. The PA
system in the FCC office used Morse. They'd use tone over speakers to
send the name of the person and the line they needed to pick up on the
phone. I don't know when that was taken out. Perhaps when the FCC
office moved out of San Francisco.
I use Morse ringtones on my cellphone to ID who's calling me. For my
next phone, I'd like Morse text entry for text messaging and email.
Date: Wed, 04 Aug 2010 08:25:04 -0500
From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Robert Bonomi)
Subject: Re: Model 15 RO Teletype available (OT)
In article <email@example.com>,
Rich Greenberg <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote:
>In article <email@example.com>,
>Lisa or Jeff <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote:
>>* Let's see, that's 1 word per second, or 5 characters per second, or
>>25 bits per second, right? (not counting start stop bits)
>No, its actually 6 characters or 30 bits/word. You have to count the
>space between words. At the typical 66 speed, thats 66 bits/sec.
For an 8-bit data code with 1 start and 1 stop bit -- i.e. 10 bit
per character, 'words per minute' was the sam as the bit-rate per
second. 10 bits/char * 6 characters (5 printing, plus the space)
exactly compensates for the difference between 'per second' and
"per minute". <grin>
IIRC, ttys used 1 start, and 1.5 stop bits. giving a total 'frame' of
7.5 bits. If that's correct, 60 WPM was the equivalent of 45 baud,
and 66 WPM was 49.5 baud. That also 'looks right' -- I remember
shaking my head over the `half bit' in the speed specification. :)
Date: Wed, 04 Aug 2010 11:04:43 -0500
From: Jim Haynes <email@example.com>
Subject: Re: Model 15 RO Teletype available (OT)
On 2010-08-02, Lisa or Jeff <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote:
> When a Morse telegraph line was converted to teleprinter, did the
> physical line need to be upgraded to properly handle the bits from the
> teleprinters? Even at the slow speed of 60 words-per-minute that's a
> lot of bit* per second to move over a coarse open wire with ground
> return. Were the relay repeaters sensitive and fast enough to replay
> teleprinter bits?
45.45 bits per second for 60 wpm teleprinter.
Certainly you wouldn't use regular Morse hardware, such as the old
Morse relays, in teleprinter service. But as for the line itself,
Western Union for a long time operated time division multiplex over
duplexed, ground-return wire circuits. This was typically four channel
multiplex. I don't know the bit rate off the top of my head but seems
like in the range of 100-200 bits/sec. This lasted into the 1950s,
when they converted to frequency division multiplex carrier systems
using electronics. One of the problems of the conversion was that they
had to achieve essentially voice-grade lines, metallic pairs, and they
had all these single-wire ground-return lines so it was hard to find a
pair of wires on a pole line where both wires of the pair had the same
wire gauge and material and position on the crossarms for the length
of the run.
I have some information dating from about 1930 on W.U. operating tables,
showing teleprinter operation but with a key and sounder to use if the
teleprinter failed. So the relays and repeaters of that time frame were
good enough for teleprinter use.
Date: Wed, 4 Aug 2010 19:44:07 +0000 (UTC)
From: Koos van den Hout <email@example.com>
Subject: Re: Overlay acceptance
Marc Haber <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote in <email@example.com>:
> John Levine <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote:
>>>Additionally, we handle PBXes a little different here. Dependent on
>>>the number of lines (I think that you would say, the width of the
>>>trunk) to the PBX, the subscriber gets a base number of a certain
>>>length and can add on her own extension numbers ad discretion.
>>I agree that can be very convenient. I have stayed in hotels where
>>the front desk's number was something like 222-333-0. and you could
>>direct dial room 123 as 222-333-123.
> This is indeed the normal way to do things in a hotel. The Austrians
> even went one step further: When the front desk's number is 05212
> 1234, room 123 could be 05212 1234 123.
> Don't ask me how that is implemented technically.
Using so-called "overlap dial". Dive into the documentation for the isdn
drivers in asterisk and you will see it mentioned a few times.
Basically the ISDN switch at the phone company allows for an ISDN switch to
signal 'give me more digits' and request those from the user at the other
end. But with the option for a timeout ('this is all you are going to
get') and with the option to signal 'no more digits' (for example when the
originating end used preprogrammed dialing as found on mobile phones).
It is only available over ISDN where there is a lot more communication
between the exchange and the equipment at the user end.
For as far as I am aware this service is offered in Germany and Austria.
The Netherlands switched to a fixed-length number plan on 10-10-1995: 10
digits total (including the 0) with 3 or 4 digit area codes and 7 or 6
digit subscriber numbers.
Koos van den Hout
The Virtual Bookcase, the site about books, book | Koos van den Hout
news and reviews http://www.virtualbookcase.com/ | http://idefix.net/
PGP keyid DSS/1024 0xF0D7C263 |
Date: Wed, 4 Aug 2010 13:24:08 -0400
From: Randall <email@example.com>
Subject: Re: Railroads
> From: Jim Haynes <firstname.lastname@example.org>
> To: email@example.com.
> Subject: Re: Model 15 RO Teletype available (OT)
> Message-ID: <LpqdnaQh1ZOT3sXRnZ2dnUVZ_gidnZ2d@earthlink.com>
> The railroads continued to use Morse right into the 1960s. In
> contrast to Western Union, telegraphy was a tool in running a
> railroad rather than the reason for existence of the company. And
> again the simplicity of the hardware was worth something. The
> railroads did use teleprinters extensively on circuits where the
> traffic warranted.
Burlington Northern was still using telex in 1987. A client of mine
was ripping up abandoned BN lines for scrap then, and BN was carrying
the scrap from where it was ripped up to the recycling yards. Larry
kept track of where his cars were (and how much they weighed) thanks
to telex transmissions from BN.
Date: Wed, 4 Aug 2010 05:08:48 -0700 (PDT)
From: Mark J. Cuccia <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Subject: Re: Do rate centers cross state lines?
David Kaye originally wrote (in part):
> As to NPA/NXX spanning, there are rural areas where it's easier to
> service one state from another. I seem to remember a small area of
> northern California serviced from Oregon. I'm trying to find the
> actual communities but can't at the moment. I believe this is also
> true between California and Nevada.
John David Galt replied:
> I've found only one case: a "Verdi, CA" exchange in 530 is served by
> a switch in Verdi, NV. There is no town of Verdi in CA; the nearest
> town in CA is Farad (exit 201 on I-80). Most of the terrain in
> between is inaccessible mountains (that stretch of I-80 runs along
> the narrow Truckee River canyon), so whoever is on the "Verdi, CA"
> exchange must be awfully hard to get to.
While the Verdi CA side is served with dial-tone from the Verdi NV
side, each side has its own unique state/area code based NPA-NXX code:
VERDNV11RS2 is the switch, a REMOTE at that, owned by at&t/SBC/
Nevada*Bell, located in Verdi NV in the Reno NV (northern Nevada)
775-345 Verdi NV
530-479 Verdi CA
Danny Burstein replied:
> We've had two in the larger NYC area.
> First is Fisher's Island, in Long Island Sound. Legally it's part of
> Suffolk County, an eastern NYC suburb.
> Per the Wiki write-up, though, it's "2 miles (3 km) off the
> southeastern coast of Connecticut across Fishers Island Sound. It
> is approx. 11 miles (18 km) from the tip of Long Island (NY)..."
So far, true.
> The physical phone lines are run from Ct. central offices.
NOT true. Someone is fooling someone and using Wikipedia to do it.
Fishers' Island NY is its own telephone company, with its own
c.o.switch, and is also its own LATA due to the demands of the NY
State PSC back in the early/mid-1980s. The original plans drafted by
pre-divestiture AT&T was to have Fishers' Island NY to be a part of
the (semi-BOC) SNET Connecticut LATA, since Fishers' Island "homed" on
the AT&T-LL/SNET tandem in New London CT. However, the NY State PSC
objected to having any NY State-based customers, rate-centers,
c.o.switches, etc. associated with any outside state's LATAs. I don't
know offhand if there are any NY State customers getting dial-tone
from any PA or NJ or CT or MA or VT (or Quebec or Ontario) central
offices, but IF any do, they would be associated with a NY State-based
LATA. However, there are several NY State-based LATAs which serve
adjacent-state customers which have their own state/NPA-based
c.o.codes, although they could get their dial-tone from their own
switch as well as from the NY side. Of course, with CLECs and wireless
these days, the ILEC trunking and such does not necessarily have to be
the same as the competitors' network configurations.
Fishers' Island NY, FSISNYXF788, is based on Fishers' island, owned by
the Fishers' Island Telephone Company (OCN 0095), and its own LATA
#921. The NPA-NXX is 631-788, the 631 area code being for Suffolk
County since the 516/631 NPA split of 1999/2000, 516 being retained by
Nassau County. Prior to that split, Fishers' Island was 516-788.
Fishers' Island NY is still "homed" on Connecticut, homing on an
AT&T-LL 4ESS in New Haven CT for quite some time post-divestiture, the
trunks still passing through New London CT. All competitive carriers
which trunk to Fishers' Island do need to pass through AT&T- LL, even
before SBC/SNET bought AT&T to become at&t. However, wireless provider
cell towers on the CT side might serve Fishers' Island NY customers,
and there might be some CLECs/etc. who now have their own microwave
links to Fishers' Island NY. But the incumbent landline service does
have their own c.o.switch on the Island, NOT served out of CT, even
though they do "home" on CT for toll.
> The other is the community of Marble Hill in Northern Manhattan. The
> physical phone cables run through a Bronx central office, and during
> the breakup of the (212) area code, these folk, despite being in
> Manhattan, were assigned into the new (718) one.
> (With the more modern carrier trunks and switches that don't care
> about distance, I wouldn't make any bets on the current arrangement).
Marble Hill is still jurisdictionally a part of Manhattan. Until about
100 years ago (or so), they were geographically a "bump" on the
northernmost tip of (northwestern) Manhattan, the Harlem River's
course swinging around this Marble Hill tip of Manhattan. But a new
channel was dredged just to the south of the Marble Hill area, so that
the Harlem River would be aligned with the course just to the west and
east of Marble Hill, cutting off Marble Hill from the rest of
Manhattan geographically (but not jurisdictionally). The original
channel segment to the north of Marble Hill seems to have been filled
up, thus making Marble Hill geographically a part of the Bronx, though
it was never changed to being jurisdictionally a part of the
Bronx. However, I understand that many borough/county-based services
(NY City is a single municipal jurisdiction spread over five
individual counties/boroughs) for Marble Hill are handled out of the
Bronx, even though Marble Hill is still a jurisdictional part of
Manhattan Borough/New York County.
Thus, it was easier to provide dial-tone from a Bronx-based
c.o.switch, and the c.o.codes remained with Bronx (718) when Bronx
migrated from 212 to 718 back in 1992/93 (the rest of 718 for
Brooklyn/Queens/Staten Isl. split form 212 back in 1984). Offhand, I
don't know if the 718-NXX c.o.codes that serve Marble Hill also serve
other Bronx points though.
But note that so far, nobody has shown an actual example of an NPA-NXX
code that crossed a state line, at least not in the modern "DDD" era,
other than the "aliased" situation where one could use either sides'
uniquely defined NPA-NXX codes to reach each side, although telco
officially defined the NPA-NXX for each jurisdictional side. Of
course, this worked in the SXS days, but not in the ESS/Digital days.
"Officially", area codes are NOT to cover more than one state. Canada
on the other hand, has had examples of area codes covering all or part
of adjacent provinces or territories. And 809 used to cover numerous
countries/territories/etc. in the +1 NANP-Caribbean area, until they
all split into their own unique area codes during the 1995-99 period.
St. Kitts and Nevis is a single jurisdictional entity, with +1-869,
but there had been talk about ten years ago that they were considering
splitting into their own island countries. I wonder if Nevis would
have wanted to split off from +1-869 into a different +1 area code?
Sint Maarten in the (soon to be politically dissolved) Netherlands
Antilles is at some future (postponed) date to join the NANP as
+1-721, splitting off from the Netherlands Antilles +599 country
code. Other soon-to-be "ex" Netherlands Antilles (yet still associated
with Holland to some degree) islands might also consider joining the
NANP. It is still unclear if they will be requested to also be
associated with +1-721, or if they would be assigned their own +1-NPA
In the case of Nevis and in the (soon to be dissolved Netherlands
Antilles), there are unique NXX c.o.codes, so if there was still NPA
code sharing, things would still be defined by the NXX code. If there
were a change in any area codes, it would also be "smooth" as far as
the c.o.codes, as well. The same also "mostly" applies to Canada where
there are area codes that cross province/territorial boundaries, as
far as c.o.codes being "uniquely" associated with a rate-center in a
particular province or territory.
But there are obviously going to be "undocumented" cases of an NPA-NXX
in a rural area near a state line which crosses over into the adjacent
state! And I'm not referring to special "FX" (Foreign Exchange)
Some of these have been documented:
Sandy Valley NV in Clark County, SDVYNV11RS2, 702-723, also used to
cover the handful of customers on the California side, also known as
Sandy Valley (CA). I forget the actual political aspects that took
place about ten years ago, with the California PUC, but SBC/
Nevada*Bell had to eventually register the CA-side as a unique
rate-center of Sandy Valley CA with the CA-PUC, and have a CA-based
c.o.code assigned, 760-657, thus renumbering these CA-side
customers. They still have the same local (EAS) calling areas.
Hyder AK USA not only gets its dial-tone from Stewart BC Canada, but
it still is numbered as part of the Canada-side, 250-636. Not only the
BC 250 area code, but also the 636 c.o.code for Stewart BC (Canada)
also serves customers in Hyder AK (USA). Prior to 2006, all of BC was
area code 604 though, so back then the code was 604-636.
Prior to 2000, GTE-of-Alaska was the "official" ILEC for the Hyder AK
USA side, but since GTE owned BC-Tel, or by now the BC-side of Telus
was still owned in part by GTE. But in 2000, either GTE or VeriZon
chose to exit Alaska, selling off their service areas in the state
(about twelve or thirteen total) to about six different local "home
grown" Alaskan independent telcos. This also included the Hyder AK USA
side. Since then, (OCN 3017) "Alaska Telephone Company" is the
official service provider for the Alaska/USA (Hyder) side customers,
billed in US$. However, all they are really doing is re-selling
dial-tone from the Telus Stewart BC Canada side switch, STWTBC01DS1. I
don't know if the Stewart BC Canada vs. Hyder AK USA side customers
are differentiated by thousands or hundreds blocks in the line-numbers
While there might be some special considerations regarding to 907
Alaska customers calling 250-636 customers, and vice-versa, for the
most part, a call to/from ALL of 250-636, including the Hyder AK USA
side with the "rest of the world" is considered a call to/from Stewart
BC Canada, and billed as such.
Finally, as to "dial-tone" that crosses political boundaries,
including state, province, territory, and even country/national
boundaries within the NANP, this has been rather common for
decades. However, NUMBERING and CODE resources crossing that level of
political boundary, while not unknown, as been rare. But Codes (NXX
and even area codes) crossing county/parish/township/municipal/etc.
boundaries is VERY common. And with VoIP and wireless, numbering and
geography/jurisdictions are becoming very disassociated!
Mark J. Cuccia
markjcuccia at yahoo dot com
Lafayette LA, formerly of New Orleans LA pre-Katrina
Date: Wed, 4 Aug 2010 17:08:40 -0700 (PDT)
From: Joseph Singer <email@example.com>
Subject: Re: My experience with cell phones overseas
Sun, 1 Aug 2010 12:08:05 +0800 John Mayson <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote:
> I have a personal cell phone though AT&T Wireless and my company
> provides me with a phone through Verizon Wireless. My first stop
> was Moscow. I was only there for about 90 minutes. Neither phone
> worked. I was able to get my iPod Touch working on the airport's
> free wifi by guessing at what the Russian language splash page
> wanted me to do.
> My next stop was Singapore. Again, neither phone worked. Use of
> free wifi in Singapore requires registration. I didn't bother as
> they have plenty of free computers throughout the terminal.
> My destination was Penang, Malaysia. Again, neither phone worked.
> I wasn't sure my Verizon phone would work, but sort of expected my
> AT&T phone to work. I'm supposed to have international on both
Not to mean any disrespect, but any number of guides to using mobile
services in other countries for the traveler from the US will tell you
basic facts such as certain native carriers (like Verizon) will not
work outside of a limited number of countries on its CDMA service and
will only work if you have a device that is capable of using GSM
networks which is what the majority of countries in the world use.
Even if you do have a device that is capable of using foreign networks
US carriers (GSM carriers as well) will not let you place calls unless
you ask them to give you global roaming capability.
Date: Thu, 5 Aug 2010 09:03:24 +0800
From: John Mayson <email@example.com>
Subject: Re: My experience with cell phones overseas
On Thu, Aug 5, 2010 at 8:08 AM, Joseph Singer <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote:
> Not to mean any disrespect, but any number of guides to using mobile
> services in other countries for the traveler from the US will tell you
> basic facts such as certain native carriers (like Verizon) will not
> work outside of a limited number of countries on its CDMA service and
> will only work if you have a device that is capable of using GSM
> networks which is what the majority of countries in the world use.
> Even if you do have a device that is capable of using foreign networks
> US carriers (GSM carriers as well) will not let you place calls unless
> you ask them to give you global roaming capability.
None taken. I questioned if the phone would work, but someone back
home insisted it would. Since I work for a global company with a lot
of Americans traveling to this part of Malaysia I thought perhaps it
was CDMA capable.
I did request global roaming on my AT&T phone and it still doesn't
work. However I have found it easier and less expensive to use a
local SIM card.
John Mayson <email@example.com>
Austin, Texas, USA
Date: Wed, 4 Aug 2010 16:55:52 -0700 (PDT)
From: Joseph Singer <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Subject: FairPoint may ask court to reverse Vt. ruling
MONTPELIER, Vt.: FairPoint Communications may ask a federal court to
overturn Vermont regulators' rejection of its reorganization plan as
northern New England's dominant landline phone company tries to emerge
from bankruptcy, a company executive said Tuesday.
Michael Smith, president of FairPoint's Vermont operations, said
that's one of two broad options the company is looking at after the
Public Service Board nixed the company's reorganization plan on June
28. That decision put Vermont at odds with New Hampshire and Maine,
which had approved the reorganization plan.
Or, for a version optimized for printing -
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