The Telecom Digest for June 17, 2010
Volume 29 : Issue 163 : "text" Format
Messages in this Issue:
Western Electric 43A dialer... (Al Gillis)
Microsoft explains mystery Firefox extension, "fixes" update (Monty Solomon)
AT&T-iPad security breach may be worse than first thought (Monty Solomon)
45 Years Ago-- Succasunna NJ 1ESS, also 305/904 FL NPA Split (Mark J. Cuccia)
Re: 45 Years Ago-- Succasunna NJ 1ESS, also 305/904 FL NPA Split (Lisa or Jeff)
Re: 45 Years Ago-- Succasunna NJ 1ESS (markjcuccia)
FTC: say goodbye to "Stacey at Account Holder Services" (danny burstein)
Re: DSL and filters for old phones--question (Jim Nugent)
Re: DSL and filters for old phones--question (Lisa or Jeff)
The Bell System and a liberal arts education (Lisa or Jeff)
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against crime. Geoffrey Welsh
See the bottom of this issue for subscription and archive details
and the name of our lawyer, and other stuff of interest.
Date: Tue, 15 Jun 2010 16:47:33 -0700
From: "Al Gillis" <email@example.com>
Subject: Western Electric 43A dialer...
Does anyone have technical info (the appropriate BSP) for a 43A dialer?
(it's dated "2-77")
This gizmo is mounted in a 7" apparatus case, has 14 slide switches (for
setting the telephone number to be dialed) and a motor driven gear that
rotates switch contacts across a circuit board wired to the slide switches.
On another circuit board there are two 6 position terminal boards and some
relays along with resistors, capacitors, diodes and those sorts of things.
This circuit board is stenciled "90D217, Series 4".
I can e-mail you a photo if that would help identify it.
Inquiring minds want to know!!!
Date: Tue, 15 Jun 2010 22:44:29 -0400
From: Monty Solomon <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Subject: Microsoft explains mystery Firefox extension, "fixes" update
Microsoft explains mystery Firefox extension, "fixes" update
By Emil Protalinski
Microsoft has fixed the distribution scope of a toolbar update that,
without the user's knowledge, installed an add-on in Internet
Explorer and an extension in Firefox called Search Helper Extension.
Microsoft told us that the new update is actually the same as the old
one; the only difference is the distribution settings. In other
words, the update will no longer be distributed to toolbars that it
shouldn't be added to. End users won't see the tweak, Microsoft told
Ars, and also offered an explanation on what the mystery add-on
Date: Tue, 15 Jun 2010 22:44:29 -0400
From: Monty Solomon <email@example.com>
Subject: AT&T-iPad security breach may be worse than first thought
AT&T-iPad security breach may be worse than first thought
By Peter Bright
Researchers looking into the security of GSM phone networks are
suggesting that the recent breach, which saw tens of thousands of
e-mail addresses and ICC-IDs inadvertently disclosed by AT&T, could
have far more significant implications than a bit of extra spam:
attackers can use the information to learn the names and phone
numbers of the leaked users, and can even track their position.
The problem is that ICC-IDs-unique serial numbers that identify each
SIM card-can often be converted into IMSIs. While the ICC-ID is
nonsecret-it's often found printed on the boxes of cellphone/SIM
bundles-the IMSI is somewhat secret. In theory, knowing an ICC-ID
shouldn't be enough to determine an IMSI. The phone companies do need
to know which IMSI corresponds to which ICC-ID, but this should be
done by looking up the values in a big database.
In practice, however, many phone companies simply calculate the IMSI
from the ICC-ID. This calculation is often very simple indeed, being
little more complex than "combine this hard-coded value with the last
nine digits of the ICC-ID." So while the leakage of AT&T's customers'
ICC-IDs should be harmless, in practice, it could reveal a secret ID.
Date: Wed, 16 Jun 2010 09:04:58 -0700 (PDT)
From: "Mark J. Cuccia" <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Subject: 45 Years Ago-- Succasunna NJ 1ESS, also 305/904 FL NPA Split
2010 is the 45th anniversary of the first #1ESS being cut into full
PSTN service in Succasunna NJ, and is also the 45th anniversary of the
305/904 area code split for northern and north-central Florida. Also,
2010 follows the exact same "days-of-the-week" mapping that 1965 did!
At 12:01am EDT (right after Midnight) on Sunday 30-May-1965, the new
Succasunna NJ #1ESS, the very first one in the Public Switched Telephone
Network, was cut-into service, SUCCNJSUCG0. The 45th anniversary of
this very first #1ESS was JUST OVER two weeks ago!
Succasunna was also the very first time when the general public could
now have such new (optional extra-cost) "Custom Calling" services as
Call Waiting, 3-Way Calling, Call Forwarding, Speed-Calling. The first
two services could be activated with a switch-hook flash, while the use
and/or activation of Call Forwarding and Speed-Calling might have
required special codes, some of which could use the '*' (star) and '#'
(pound) DTMF buttons. Of course, the "star" (*) could be replaced by
rotary dial customers and 10-button touchtone customers (and even used
by 12-button touchtone customers as well) with '11'. The "pound" (#)
would "trail" a one or two digit code, to indicate to the central office
that the customer was finished dialing the number, or maybe that "part"
of the number, and to "cut-through" to the desired number, or to the
next stage of setting up a feature. Rotary customers, 10-button
touchtone customers, and even 12-button touchtone customers could simply
WAIT the three-to-five seconds of post-dial-delay for the central office
to "time-out" and cut through to either the desired number or to the
next stage of the feature set-up. "Trailing 'pounds'" (#) could also be
used on 011+/01+ IDDD calls which had variable length numbers, and also
on 0- (minus) calls direct to an Operator as '0#' since the central
office would be doing a post-dial-delay wait (until time-out) if the
customer simply dialed '0', since the call "could" be a 0+ ten-digit (or
seven-digit HNPA) Operator/Special billing call, or a 011+/01+ IDDD
call, or in post-divestiture years, a '00' call to the IXC/LD operator,
while '0' by itself is now the "local" operator.
In 1974, the only 201-NNX c.o.code on SUCCNJSUCG0 was 201-584. The next
201-NNX code, 201-927, was added to SUCCNJSUCG0 at some point AFTER
October 1975 and BEFORE February 1978.
201-584 was most likely the code for the cutover on 30-May-1965 since
a (partial) list of circa 1960 2L-5N EXchange NAmes in New Jersey posted
to Townson's Telecom Digest/Archives in September 1996 shows "JUstice 4"
(584) as being Succasunna NJ.
But did the SUCCNJSUCG0 1ESS replace a SXS office (or even #5XB) back on
Sunday 30-May-1965? Succasunna NJ is much further west/inside northern
New Jersey well away from the Panel/#1XB (and later #5XB) "revertive
pulsing" region of northeastern New Jersey along the Hudson River across
from New York City. When Englewood NJ first had originating customer DDD
access to just over a dozen major metro areas as of November 1951,
although it wasn't actually "known" as DDD yet, the list of 2L-5N areas
in northeastern New Jersey that Englewood already had direct dial
(message unit and toll) access to did NOT include Succasunna NJ. Of
course, I don't even know if Succasunna NJ was yet a "dial" office in
Some further details on later developments re Succasunna follow below.
Also in 1965, 45 years ago this year, the northern, north-central, and
northeastern areas of Florida which were still part of the 305 area code
were split off into the new 904 area code. 305 was retained (at that
time) by central Florida and the east coast of Florida from the Cape
Canaveral/Kennedy area southward, all the way to "The Keys". This split
took effect as a FLASH CUT, at 2:01am EDT on Sunday 11-July-1965. There
was NO formal/official permissive dialing period. Such permissive dial
periods with area code changes/splits didn't even happen until the
714/619 split which was permissive on November 1982 (mandatory in
February 1983). Even the Virginia 703/804 split of Sunday 24-June-1973
was also a FLASH CUT with NO formal/official permissive dial period!
(DESPITE what others' webpages attempt to indicate, which also
frequently have the WRONG implementation dates as well!).
Of course, even though there was no "formal/official" permissive dial
period, which in later decades could last anywhere from one month to a
year-and-a-half, it is POSSIBLE that both 904 and temporary continued
use of 305 "might" inadvertently work for several hours after the
official cut-date/time of 2:01am EDT Sunday 11-July-1965, since AT&T-LL,
Southern Bell, etc. had to first open up all valid/new 904-NNX codes in
the network, and then after that was completed (and tested), all old
"matching" 305-NNX codes which previously referenced locations now
officially in 904, had to be "removed" or "turned off" with vacant or
intercept type recordings if someone still dialed the old 305 NPA for
placing calls to this now-904 part of Florida, those same 305-NNX codes
to ultimately be re-assigned to locations in that part of Florida which
retained the 305 NPA code (at that time). Such an "inadvertent"
permissive dial period "could" have taken effect, for who knows...
3-hours? 6-hours? 8-hours? 12-hours? following 2:01am Eastern that
Sunday morning, 11-July-1965. I was only four years old at the time,
and while I was fascinated by the telephone even at that age, I wouldn't
have been doing any test-dialing to find out back then!!!!
With the July 1965 Florida 305/904 area code split, the state now had
three area codes, the third area code being 813 for the west (Gulf)
coast of southern Florida, all GTE (now VeriZon, still being retained
by VeriZon) for the Tampa Bay area, and CenturyLink/Embarq/Sprint/United
for the Fort Meyers area. 813 was carved out of 305 back in the early
1950s, although it wouldn't be until the early 1960s when calls could
be DIALED by customers elsewhere in the US/Canada to this 813 southwest
"independent" region of Florida. The OLD name for VZ/GTE Tampa was
Peninsular Telephone Company which General Telephone purchased circa
1968, and the OLD name for the CenturyLink-once-United Fort Meyers
area was Inter-County Telephone Company which United purchased probably
in the mid-1960s.
In Spring 1988, Florida's fourth area code, the 407 area code split from
305, for the Orlando and NASA regions (Orange County, Seminole County,
Osceola County, Brevard County, part of Volusia County, and a very small
part of Lake County) and also for points north of Broward County --
i.e., Palm Beach County, Martin County, St.Lucie County, Indian River
County. 305 (at the time) was retained by Broward County, Dade County
(Miami/etc), and the "Keys" part of Monroe County.
Starting in 1995 and continuing through 2002, all four area codes in
Florida (as of 1988) have had several splits and/or overlays, the 904
area code included -- 352 for north-central Florida (Gainesville) in
1995, 850 for the panhandle (Tallahassee to Pensacola) in 1997, and 386
for both the Daytona area and points to the west of the Jacksonville
area/north of the Gainesville area in 2001. The 904 area code was
retained by the Jacksonville area itself in northeast Florida.
Some later developments regarding Succasunna NJ:
The second 201-NNX office code, 201-927, was added to the original
201-584 (JUstice 4-) at SUCCNJSUCG0 at some point AFTER October 1975,
but BEFORE February 1978.
SUCCNJSUCG0 (still a 1ESS, never upgraded to a 1AESS by NJ-Bell/Bell
Atlantic, WECO/Labs) was replaced by a new 5ESS, SUCCNJSUDS5, on
Saturday 28-September-1991. It still had the same two c.o.codes,
201-584 and 201-927.
201-252 was added to SUCCNJSUDS5 on Saturday 30-January-1993.
Succasunna NJ fell on the 973 side of the 201/973 area code split of
1997. Permissive dialing of the new 973 area code began on Sunday
01-June-1997. Mandatory use of the new 973 area code, meaning that the
use of the 201 area code for Succasunna and other parts of north-central
and north-western (and even some northeastern NJ was no longer allowed)
took effect on Saturday 06-December-1997 -- i.e., 201-252, 201-584, and
201-927, were replaced respectively by 973-252, 973-584, 973-927.
A new 973-NNX code, the fourth, 973-598, was added to SUCCNJSUDS5 on
In December 2001, the 973 area code was overlaid with the new 862 area
code. At the same time, 201 was overlaid with 551, and 732 (which split
from 908 back in 1997) was overlaid with 858. (908 had split from 201
back in 1990/91).
There are several other 973-NXX codes associated with the Succasunna NJ
ratecenter, as well as some new 862-NXX codes, and even some (default)
VeriZon-Wireless 201-NXX office codes which might probably have been
legacy Bell-Atlantic/(NYNEX) Mobile office codes pre-dating the 201/973
area code split of 1997 which were "grandfathered" in the 201 NPA
instead of changing to 973-NXX codes back then, also all associated with
the Succasunna NJ ratecenter.
But the VeriZon/Bell-Atlantic/NJ-Bell SUCCNJSUDS5 5ESS, which replaced
the 30-May-1965 SUCCNJSUCG0 1ESS (THE VERY FIRST) in 1991, has only
four "default" c.o.codes associated with it, all four also being
associated with the Succasunna NJ ratecenter, originally part of the
201 area code, but splitting/changing to the new 973 area code during
973-252 (since 30-January-1993, initially as 201-252)
973-584 (the ORIGINAL code as 201 "JUstice 4", predates the 1965 1ESS)
973-598 (since 30-September-1998)
973-927 (since the mid-1970s, initially as 201-927, originally on the 1ESS)
Mark J. Cuccia
markjcuccia at yahoo dot com
Lafayette LA, formerly of New Orleans LA pre-Katrina
Date: Wed, 16 Jun 2010 12:41:34 -0700 (PDT)
From: Lisa or Jeff <email@example.com>
Subject: Re: 45 Years Ago-- Succasunna NJ 1ESS, also 305/904 FL NPA Split
On Jun 16, 12:04 pm, "Mark J. Cuccia" <markjcuc...@yahoo.com> wrote:
> But did the SUCCNJSUCG0 1ESS replace a SXS office (or even #5XB) back on
> Sunday 30-May-1965?
According to the NYT of 5/28/65 reporting on the new service, "the
office will serve 4,500 customers in six communities, but only 200
will have access to the three new services provided by the new
The three services mentioned in the article were speed calling, three-
way calling, and call forwarding. Nothing was said about call waiting
or other ESS services.
> . . . The first two services could be activated with a switch-hook
> flash, while the use and/or activation of Call Forwarding and
> Speed-Calling might have required special codes, some of which could
> use the '*' (star) and '#' (pound) DTMF buttons. . .
> . . . Trailing 'pounds'" (#) could also be used on 011+/01+ IDDD
> calls which had variable length numbers . . .
At the time of this particular cutover, Touch Tone service was
extremely new and very rare, and I doubt was available before the
cutover in this town (they did get it, see below). Also, I don't
think International Direct Distance Dialing was available; that would
come circa 1970 to a few places.
There is a Popular Science article extract on Amazon describing the
cutover. One of the townfolk did get a new 12 button Touch Tone
phone and used the * key instead of 11 for the Speed Calling.
With Touch Tone virtually universal today and many people having
phones with automatic dialers, I wonder how many public ESS
subscribers make use of Speed Calling today. I would guess today it
is a rarely used option for public use, though perhaps more so for
internal PBX users.
I also wonder how many people use Call Forwarding today, especially in
these days of cheap cell phones. The article pointed out a problem--
forgetting to turn off Call Forwarding when you've returned home.
Today, some ESS featurse are available a la carte, others require a
monthly subscription. I like the a la carte offerings such as Return
Call (1169) and 3-way calling (flash+number), despite the 75c per use
P.S. Verizon is spelled without a capital 'z'. The logo has it, but
all text references on their website are lower case z.
Date: Wed, 16 Jun 2010 20:26:40 -0700 (PDT)
Subject: Re: 45 Years Ago-- Succasunna NJ 1ESS
On Wednesday 16 June 2010, Lisa Hancock <hancock at bbs.cpcn.com>
> "Mark J. Cuccia" <markjcuccia at yahoo.com> wrote:
>> But did the SUCCNJSUCG0 1ESS replace a SXS office (or even #5XB)
>> back on Sunday 30-May-1965?
> According to the NYT of 5/28/65 reporting on the new service, "the office
> will serve 4,500 customers in six communities, but only 200 will have access
> to the three new services provided by the new electronic system".
> The three services mentioned in the article were speed calling, three-way
> calling, and call forwarding. Nothing was said about call waiting or other
> ESS services.
The Popular Science article you reference below mentions that the 1ESS
does have Call Waiting, but mentioned the overall "service", not The
not the actual marketed "name" of Call Waiting.
That article also referred to a "return call" service (similar to
today's *69), in that you could "camp-on" to a busy line you'd been
trying to call, and when that line became free, you could be notified
and connect back to the 'now freed up' line. I don't know if those
early 1ESS offices actually had such, or if it was a possibility being
Note too that many early 1ESS offices had "pre-arranged" Call
Forwarding or Speed Calling. The customer was not able to set-up their
speed call list, the telephone company would set-up their list from
pre-arrangements from the customer. And the customer could only
"turn-on" or "turn-off" Call Forwarding, also to a pre-set number
pre-arranged by the customer with the telephone company when setting
up the service in advance.
There is a Bell Labs Record issue from June 1965 which seems to be
completely devoted to the 1ESS. Also in the mid/late 1960s, the Bell
Labs Record had an article about how Bell Labs was trying to "kludge"
some limited custom calling features for #5XB, but due to the high
costs, this was abandoned early on.
Also, the *X(X) = 11X(X) codes or N(X)(#) codes to activate or use the
various custom calling features have never been 100% standardized over
the years (even as far back as the 1960s), or even from
place-to-place. There has been a desire to have standardized codes,
and such has been "mostly" realized, but still not fully
standardized. Even if the same numerics are used, some places would
have *XX/11XX, while other places might require NX(#) for the very
>> ... The first two services could be activated with a switch-hook flash,
>> while the use and/or activation of Call Forwarding and Speed-Calling might
>> have required special codes, some of which could use the '*' (star) and '#'
>> (pound) DTMF buttons ...
>> ... trailing 'pounds'" (#) could also be used on 011+/01+ IDDD calls which
>> had variable length numbers ...
> At the time of this particular cutover, Touch Tone service was extremely new
> and very rare, and I doubt was available before the cutover in this town
> (they did get it, see below). Also, I don't think International Direct
> Distance Dialing was available; that would come circa 1970 to a few places.
The first actual (experimental) and even "regular" uses of IDDD was
actually from #5XB offices, in June 1966 in Philadelphia (for one or
two days though), and then in 1967 for several months in mid-town
Manhattan. And then circa 1970, lower Manhattan #5XB offices had IDDD
capability. Yet when IDDD was being regularly implemented throughout
the 1970s, it was mostly offered "only" at ESS offices, although
customers served by SXS offices which "homed" on an "ESS-based" TSPS
Operator Platform could also do their own IDDD. Yet throughout most of
the 1970s and well into the 1980s, #5XB offices were NOT usually
retrofitted for IDDD, despite the fact that IDDD was first introduced
experimentally from #5XB in 1966 (Philadelphia for one or two days),
and for several months in 1967 (Midtown Manhattan), and then rolled
out as a regular service from lower Manhattan circa 1970! In the
mid-to-late 1980s and into the (early) 1990s, SOME remaining #5XB
offices were "kludged" for IDDD and Equal Access, however these were
soon to be replaced with new digital offices anyhow!
> There is a Popular Science article extract on Amazon ...
Don't you mean "Google Books"?
> ... describing the cutover. One of the townfolk did get a new 12 button
> Touch Tone phone and used the * key instead of 11 for the Speed Calling.
(Google Books URL snipped in this reply due to long length that word-
> With Touch Tone virtually universal today and many people having phones with
> automatic dialers, I wonder how many public ESS subscribers make use of Speed
> Calling today. I would guess today it is a rarely used option for public
> use, though perhaps more so for internal PBX users.
> I also wonder how many people use Call Forwarding today, especially in these
> days of cheap cell phones. The article pointed out a problem-- forgetting to
> turn off Call Forwarding when you've returned home.
Speed Calling or "Abbreviated Dialing" was mentioned in the 1965
being a very popular feature! However, as time progressed, Call
actually became the most popular feature during the 1970s/80s! Call
was also quite popular and probably still is, with people probably
their landline to their wireless, or vice-versa especially when
charging up the
battery. And three-way had been quite popular at times. But since most
phones have memory-dial buttons or large directory storages, telco
based speed calling is probably very little used now-a-days!
> Today, some ESS features are available a la carte, others require a monthly
> subscription. I like the a la carte offerings such as Return Call (1169) and
> 3-way calling (flash + number), despite the 75c per use charge.
Some telcos offer an "all you can use" package, for a fixed monthly
can have all or "most/many" custom calling or "CLASS" features on your
and add/drop them as desired, all without incurring any additional one-
charges, nor increases in monthly charges.
> P.S. Verizon is spelled without a capital 'z'. The logo has it, but all
> text references on their website are lower case z.
I'm well aware of this, but I like the way VeriZon looks when typed
out, with the 'Z' cap'd. Similarly, when I refer to the current name
of ILEC side of what was once known as SBC (including Ameritech, SNET,
Pacific & Nevada Bell), BellSouth, as well as cingular-wireless, I
prefer to type out the letters 'at&t' in lower-case, since I like the
way it looks. When I refer to the Long Lines side which still uses the
name it has used since before divestiture, I type it all cap'd as
AT&T-LL. So, since I like the way VeriZon looks with the cap'd 'Z',
and the ILEC at&t looks in lower case, I will continue to type it out
Date: Wed, 16 Jun 2010 20:15:41 -0400
From: danny burstein <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Subject: FTC: say goodbye to "Stacey at Account Holder Services"
[FTC press release]
The Federal Trade Commission's work to stop deceptive pre-recorded
"robocalls" took another step forward today as a federal court halted
a major telemarketing operation that made millions of illegal phone
calls pitching worthless extended auto warranties and credit card
interest rate-reduction programs. At the request of the FTC, a federal
court judge in Chicago has entered an order stopping the operation's
calls, temporarily freezing its assets, and appointing a receiver to
take control of the operation."
- nothing in the press release about the banks and
credit card companies agreeing to prompt refunds
for any of the ripped off money.
"The FTC reminds consumers that if they get a robocall
they did not authorize, they can file a complaint by
going to: www.donotcall.gov or by calling 1-888-382-1222"
- however, the web page will NOT accept a complaint
if you don't have a CNID number to fill in to the
FTC box. Which happens, of course, if you either
don't pay for CNID, don't have a display, or if
they've been blocking it.
(And yes, I've written Real USPS Letters to the FTC
as well as to my US Senators pointing out this
little problem. No reply. No surprise).
Knowledge may be power, but communications is the key
[to foil spammers, my address has been double rot-13 encoded]
Date: Wed, 16 Jun 2010 09:35:53 -0500
From: "Jim Nugent" <email@example.com>
Subject: Re: DSL and filters for old phones--question
"Lisa or Jeff" <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote in message
> Just a historical note--party lines remained reasonably common long
> after the Princess phone was introduced. Likewise with the Trimline
> phone, which also had a dial light. Indeed, back in the 1950s where
> were sets with tiny dial lights on them that needed power.
I've had Timline phones in the past that required a transformer for the dial
light. Sometime in the 80's we bought a Trimline phone that did NOT require
a transformer. It's in our bedroom, the dial lights up, but it does not use
the yellow and black wires. I guess it's a newer design that just leeches
power from the phone line itself (tip and ring)....?
***** Moderator's Note *****
The newer models have light-emitting-diodes (LED's) in the handset, in
series with the line.
Date: Wed, 16 Jun 2010 21:13:18 -0700 (PDT)
From: Lisa or Jeff <email@example.com>
Subject: Re: DSL and filters for old phones--question
On Jun 16, 10:35 am, "Jim Nugent" <njim2k-etsn...@yahoo.com> wrote:
> I've had Timline phones in the past that required a transformer for the
> light. Sometime in the 80's we bought a Trimline phone that did NOT require
> a transformer. It's in our bedroom, the dial lights up, but it does not use
> the yellow and black wires. I guess it's a newer design that just leeches
> power from the phone line itself (tip and ring)....?
> ***** Moderator's Note *****
> The newer models have light-emitting-diodes (LED's) in the handset, in
> series with the line.
When the Bell System was totally responsible for maintenance, they
sought a way to eliminate the transformer and lightbulb since that
represented extra work by the installer. Sending out a repairman just
to replace a burned-out lamp was seen as very wasteful.
Some years ago Bell Labs Record had an article on LEDs and how they
could save money for the Bell System per the above. Using LEDs
instead of an incandescent dial lamp in Princess and Trimline phones
was one welcome solution. LEDs were also utilized in keysets and
switchboards. I think they stuck with lightbulbs in the traditional
six-button keysets and even ComKey systems, but newer systems
(Horizon, Merlin?) used LEDs.
The old Bell System constantly researched ways to reduce the
maintenance cost of station equipment. Indeed, even without
Divesture, they probably would've sold off station equipment to the
subscribers since the maintenance and installation cost in labor was
growing. A big problem for the Bell System in the late 1960s and
onward was 'churning'--Americans were moving much more than they used
and the Bell System was installing and removing phones much more often
than the past. (This also wracked havoc on distributing frames which
became overloaded from new jumpers).
Note that even before Divesture the Bell System was trying to get
customers to do more on their own, such as with modular jacks and
Phone Center Stores, and campaigns to have subscribers disconnect
their phones themselves when they moved.
Today of course telephone sets are basically disposable. When they
break, toss it and buy a new one. Even wireless handsets.
Date: Wed, 16 Jun 2010 20:19:12 -0700 (PDT)
From: Lisa or Jeff <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Subject: The Bell System and a liberal arts education
The NYT published today an article how in 1952 the Bell System sent
its executives back to college to get a liberal arts education. The
reason was, "A well-trained man knows how to answer questions, they
reasoned; an educated man knows what questions are worth asking."
Bell realized it had many highly trained engineers in its management,
but many did not have a humanities background in their training or
experience, and it was felt it was desirable.
The article goes on to wonder if such a program would be useful today.
For full article please see:
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