TELECOM Digest OnLine - Sorted: Re: Direct and Indirect Military Spending

Re: Direct and Indirect Military Spending

Wed, 11 Apr 2007 15:43:16 -0700

In article <>, T
<> wrote:

> I know of one device where Bell was instrumental, and that was
> centimeter and millimeter RADAR. The British may have invented the
> magnetron, but Bell invented the MASER.

> That MASER btw spawned the 802.11G wireless system I use. Let's not
> forget the earlier development of the transistor, or the later
> development of the ruby LASER.

Charles Townes, Columbia university faculty member, invented and built
the first man-made maser/laser device of any type (mm-wave ammonia
maser oscillator/atomic clock), at Columbia, in 1951-1954.

Nico Bloembergen at Harvard invented the microwave solid-state maser
(first one with any potential usefulness in radar) at Harvard in 1956.
Bell Labs built first working version that same year, not long after
hearing of/seeing (advance?) copy of Bloembergen's initial

First succesful (ruby) laser was invented and operated by Ted Maiman
at Hughes Research Labs, Malibu in 1960, pretty much totally
independently of (and to the substantial surprise of) the ongoing East
Coast and Bell Labs efforts to make a laser.

Second and third lasers (both solid-state) were made shortly
thereafter by Sorokin et al at IBM Yorktown. Bell Labs the fourth
(but first gas) laser just at the very end of 1960.


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